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 leukemia disease

leukemia disease

Leukemia is a type of cancer that forms in the tissues responsible for producing blood cells, including the bone marrow and the lymphatic system.

This type of cancer usually begins in white blood cells, where white blood cells can fend off and fight various infections and inflammations.

These cells generally grow very healthy and divide according to the needs of the body, but in the case of leukemia, the bone marrow in the body produces too many abnormal white blood cells that cannot function properly.

Leukemia is not only a common disease in children. Leukemia has four main types and a wide variety of secondary types, only a part of which is common in children.

Diagnosing a person with leukemia may cause intense feelings of anxiety and fear, while the task of treating leukemia may be complex and complex according to the type of leukemia and according to many different other factors. 

On the other hand, there are various methods and many resources that can help the patients deal with leukemia.


classification of leukemia

Doctors usually classify leukemia in two ways:

1. According to the pace of progress

The first classification depends on the rate of progression of the disease, and includes the following:

Acute or dangerous leukemia

Abnormal blood cells are primitive blood cells that are not developed, these cells are unable to carry out their function and tend to divide rapidly, so the disease progresses rapidly, and acute leukemia requires strong and severe treatment that must be started immediately.

chronic leukemia

This type of leukemia arises in adult blood cells, which divide and multiply or accumulate more slowly, and have a normal ability to function over a certain period. 

In some types of chronic leukemia, there are no specific symptoms and the disease can remain hidden and undiagnosed for a few years.


2. According to the type of affected cells

The second classification depends on the type of affected blood cells, as follows:

Lymphocytic leukemia

This type of leukemia attacks the lymphocytes responsible for the production of lymphatic tissue. 

This tissue is found in many-body systems, including the lymph nodes, spleen, or tonsils.

myelogenous leukemia

This type attacks myeloid cells in the spinal cord, which include those that are supposed to develop in the future into red blood cells, white blood cells, and cells responsible for producing blood platelets.

The main types of leukemia

The main types of leukemia, are as follows:

Acute myelogenous leukemia

It is the most common type of leukemia. The disease appears in boys and in adults. It is also called acute non-lymphocytic leukemia.

acute lymphoblastic leukemia

This is the most common type in young children and is responsible for 75% of cases of childhood leukemia.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Although this type is very common and appears mainly in adults, people with it can feel good for several years without the need for any treatment, and it is almost not seen in children.

Chronic myelogenous leukemia

This type of leukemia appears mainly in adults, and its appearance is due to a defect in the chromosome responsible for causing a genetic mutation in the gene, this gene produces an abnormal protein called tyrosine kinase, and scientists and doctors believe that it is what enables cancer cells to arise and multiply.

Other rare types of leukemia include hairy cell leukemia and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.


Symptoms of leukemia

Symptoms of leukemia vary and differ according to the type of leukemia. However, common symptoms of leukemia include:

fever.

Constant fatigue and asthenia.

Recurrent infection.

Loss of appetite or weight loss.

Swollen lymph nodes.

Enlarged liver or spleen.

Easy bleeding or bruising.

Shortness of breath during physical activity or when climbing stairs.

Small red dots and spots appear on the skin.

Excessive sweating, especially at night.

Pain or sensitivity in the bones.

The severity of symptoms is related to the amount and location of the abnormal blood cells, and the initial signs and symptoms of leukemia may be overlooked because they are similar to the signs and symptoms of influenza or other common illnesses.


Causes and risk factors for leukemia

Scientists do not yet know what the true causes of leukemia are, but it appears that it is generated and developed as a result of a combination of various genetic and environmental factors.

Acute leukemia begins in a single white blood cell or in a small group of cells that have lost their DNA sequence.

These cells remain underdeveloped but can reproduce; Since they are not developed enough as healthy cells do, they accumulate and impede the proper functioning of vital organs in the body.

Chronic leukemia attacks the most advanced blood cells. These cells multiply and accumulate more slowly, so the progression of the disease is also slower, but it can be fatal, and specialists still do not fully know the exact causes of this process.

In the end, a shortage of healthy and healthy blood cells arises, which leads to inflammation, excessive bleeding, and anemia, and the presence of a very large number of white blood cells would affect the function of bone marrow tissue and its penetration to other organs, and when such a situation leads to death, it It is usually the result of severe blood loss or infection.


risk factors

The following factors may increase the risk of developing some types of leukemia:

Cancer treatment

People who have previously undergone certain types of chemotherapy or radiotherapy methods are at risk of developing certain types of whitewashed blood after many years of treatment.

genetics

It appears that certain genetic abnormalities may affect the emergence of leukemia, as it has been discovered that certain genetic diseases such as Down syndrome increase the likelihood of developing leukemia.


Exposure to radiation or certain chemicals

People who have been exposed to very high levels of radiation, such as survivors of an atomic explosion or an atomic reactor accident, are at high risk of developing leukemia.

Exposure to certain types of chemicals such as gasoline in unleaded fuels and tobacco smoke also increases the risk of developing certain types of leukemia.

In any case, the majority of people exposed to these risk factors or belonging to a certain risk group for developing leukemia do not develop it, and a large portion of people with leukemia was not among those who were exposed to these risk factors.


Other chronic lymphocyte defects

This group of diseases causes the emergence of chronic leukemia, by excessive or scarce production of lymphocytes. These chronic defects in lymphocytes include the following:

Myelodysplastic syndrome.

Myeloproliferative disorder.

Primary erythrocytes.

Myelofibrosis.

This group of medical conditions can eventually lead to leukemia in the spinal cord.


Diagnosis of leukemia

In most cases, doctors diagnose leukemia during a regular blood test before any symptoms appear. 

If this is the case, or if the person has symptoms that may indicate that he has leukemia, he may undergo one or more of the following tests:

Physical examination.

blood tests

Cell morphogenesis.

Bone marrow biopsy.

Many other tests may be needed to confirm the diagnosis and to determine the type of leukemia and the degree of its spread in the body. 

Some types of leukemia are classified into levels that indicate the degree of severity and extent of the spread of the body. 

Determining the classification and grading of the disease helps the treating physician in developing the most optimal and most appropriate leukemia treatment program. effectiveness.


Leukemia treatment

Unlike other types of cancer, leukemia does not consist of a solid mass of tissue that a doctor can remove and get rid of with surgery, so the treatment of leukemia is very complex.

The extent of the complexity is related to basic factors: age, health status, type of leukemia, and spread to other parts of the body. 

As for leukemia treatment methods used to combat leukemia, they include:


Chemotherapy.

Kinase Inhibitors.

Radiation therapy.

Bone Marrow Transplantation.

Stem Cells Transplantation.

Prevention of leukemia

The disease cannot be prevented.


Alternative therapies

There is no herbal cure for leukemia.

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