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What are the symptoms of leukemia and its danger to life?

 What are the symptoms of leukemia and its danger to life?

The symptoms of leukemia are often difficult to detect because they are very similar to the symptoms of other diseases. 

Even blood tests show an abnormality in the blood and do not explain the cause. What are the symptoms of leukemia and how is it diagnosed?

What are the symptoms of leukemia and its danger to life?

Leukemia is no different in its severity and malignancy from other types of cancer, although some types are among the most dangerous. 

As the symptoms of leukemia infiltrate the body without raising any suspicion of its presence. 

It is similar to many diseases, such as symptoms of the thyroid gland, anemia, menopause, lack of some vitamins, and many others.

Only the doctor discovers the symptoms of leukemia, in addition to the necessary laboratory tests and tests. What is leukemia? What are the symptoms of leukemia?


What is leukemia?

Leukemia, or leukemia, is a cancer of the tissue responsible for blood formation, that is, the immature blood cells found in the bone marrow or bone marrow, a soft and spongy substance located inside most bones.

What are the symptoms of leukemia and its danger to life?


Leukemia usually begins with a defect in the formation of blood cells in the bone marrow. The abnormal cells (or leukemia cells) multiply and outnumber normal cells, preventing them from working properly. 

Then, symptoms of leukemia begin to appear. Symptoms of leukemia vary according to its type, whether acute or chronic.

Men are more likely to develop leukemia than women. The risk of developing most types of leukemia increases with age in both men and women.

In Canada, 1 in 53 men and 1 in 72 women will develop leukemia in their lifetime.


In France, leukemia affects about 20,000 people each year. Leukemias are responsible for approximately 29% of childhood cancers, 80% of which are acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

Read also: What are the symptoms of breast cancer, methods of treatment, and prevention?

Types of blood cancer (leukemia)

There are several types of leukemia. They can be classified according to how quickly the disease progresses (acute or chronic) and according to the bone marrow stem cells from which it develops (bone marrow or lymphoma).

Leukemia usually refers to cancers of the white blood cells (lymphocytes and granulocytes, the cells responsible for immunity). 

Although some very rare cancers can affect red blood cells and platelets. There are 4 main types of leukemia:

1- Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

2- Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)

3- Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

4- Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)

In adults, the most common types of leukemia are CLL and AML. There are many other subtypes of leukemia, which are as follows:


1- acute leukemia

Abnormal and immature blood cells (blasts). These cells do not perform their normal function and multiply rapidly, and the disease progresses rapidly as well. 

Treatment should be "aggressive" and applied as soon as possible after the disease is detected.


2- Chronic leukemia

The cells involved are more mature. They multiply slowly and do their job for some time. Some forms of leukemia can go undetected for several years.


Read also: What is bathroom.. its causes and prevention

3- Myeloid leukemia

It affects granulocytes and blood stem cells found in the bone marrow. It produces abnormal white blood cells (bone marrow blastocysts). There are two types of myeloid leukemia:


A- acute myeloid leukemia (AML)

This type of leukemia begins suddenly, often within days or weeks. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is the most common form of acute leukemia in adolescents and young adults. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) can occur at any age but is most likely to develop in adults age 60 or older.


B- Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)

Chronic myelogenous leukemia is also called chronic myeloid leukemia or chronic granulomatous leukemia. 

This type of leukemia develops slowly, over months or even years. Symptoms of the disease appear with an increase in the number of leukemia cells in the blood or bone marrow. 

It is the most common form of chronic leukemia in adults between the ages of 25 and 60. Sometimes it does not require any treatment for several years.


4- Lymphocytic leukemia

Lymphocytic leukemia infects lymphocytes and produces lymphoblasts. There are two types of lymphocytic leukemia:

A - acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

This type of leukemia begins suddenly and develops rapidly within a few days or weeks.

Also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia, it is the most common form of leukemia in young children. There are several subtypes of this type of leukemia.

B- Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

This type of leukemia most often affects adults, especially those between the ages of 60 and 70. People with this disease may have no or very few symptoms for years and then go through a phase when leukemia cells grow rapidly.


Causes of leukemia

The causes of leukemia are still unknown and not well understood. Scientists agree that the disease is a combination of genetic and environmental factors. 

Therefore, there is talk of risk factors for leukemia. A risk factor is a person's behavior, exposure to a particular substance (environmental pollution), or a condition that increases the risk of developing cancer.

"A risk factor is an element that can promote the development of leukemia," according to the Curie Institute, which says: "The presence or exposure to one of these factors does not necessarily mean that a person will develop leukemia. On the contrary, cancer can occur in a person Who has none of the risk factors.

Most cancers are caused by many risk factors, but sometimes leukemia develops in people who don't have any of the known risk factors.

The risk factors are usually ranked from most important to least important. But in most cases, it is impossible to classify them with absolute certainty.

There is compelling evidence that the following factors increase the risk of developing leukemia. Which


1- High level of radiation

Exposure to a high level of radiation, such as during a nuclear reactor accident or internationally prohibited weapons used in war, is a risk factor for leukemia.


2- Radiation therapy and chemotherapy

Receiving radiation therapy in the past, to treat cancer or other medical conditions, increased your risk of developing leukemia. 

Chemotherapy, previously used to treat cancer, also increases the risk of leukemia.


3- Smoking

Smoking increases the risk of some types of leukemia and may increase the risk of other types.


4- Inhaling gasoline

Inhaling benzene increases the risk of leukemia. The substance Benzene found in unleaded gasoline is used in the chemical industry. 

Benzene can be inhaled by anyone, at work, in the public environment, or when using certain products.


5- Inhaling formaldehyde

Some studies have shown that inhaling formaldehyde increases the risk of leukemia. Factory workers, chemical workers, embalmers, and others may come into contact with formaldehyde at work. 

Embalmers are at greater risk of developing leukemia, because they are in contact with formaldehyde for longer than others, and use it more frequently in their work.


6- Familial Cancer Syndromes

Certain medical conditions are associated with an increased risk of cancer, including leukemia, due to an inherited genetic mutation or change in a gene. 

These conditions are called familial cancer syndromes or hereditary cancer syndromes. Most familial cancer syndromes are rare. 

It is one of the causes of cancer in both children and adults.


7- Down syndrome

Down syndrome is associated with an increased risk of leukemia. It is a chromosome disease caused by the presence of an extra chromosome, chromosome 21. This disease is also called trisomy 21.


8- Fanconi anemia

Fanconi anemia, or aplastic anemia, is an inherited disorder that affects the bone marrow and prevents it from forming red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets.

Fanconi anemia increases the risk of developing myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), oral cavity cancer, and oropharyngeal carcinoma.


9- Ataxia telangiectasia

Ataxia-telangiectasia is also called "Louis-Bar syndrome". It is a rare genetic disease that affects the nervous system, immune system, and other body systems and systems. 

Signs and symptoms include loss of balance, poor coordination, frequent infections, eye redness (caused by dilated blood vessels), and abnormal eye movements. 

Ataxia-telangiectasia has been linked to an increased risk of some types of cancer, including leukemia and lymphoma.


10- Bloom's Syndrome

Bloom syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in a specific chromosome. Signs include a lower-than-average height, a high-pitched voice, and a distinctive facial shape.

Bloom syndrome is associated with an increased risk of certain cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, breast, cervical, colon, stomach, larynx, and skin other than melanoma and Wilms' tumor. People with Bloom syndrome often have several different types of cancer.

Bloom syndrome is also called Bloom-Tori-Machak syndrome or congenital erythema telangiectasia.


11- Possible risk factors

Overweight and obesity are potential risk factors for leukemia. This means that a link has been observed between these factors and leukemia, but there is not enough evidence to say that they are a risk factor.


Symptoms of leukemia

The signs and symptoms of leukemia vary according to the type of leukemia, whether acute or chronic.

Symptoms of acute leukemia or acute leukemia are similar to the flu. They appear suddenly within days or weeks.

While the symptoms of chronic leukemia or chronic leukemia, are few or no. In general, the signs appear gradually. 

Many people with chronic leukemia say they simply don't feel well. The disease is often discovered during a routine blood test.

It must be noted that the same symptoms of leukemia are similar to many symptoms of other diseases. 

Only a specialized doctor can distinguish between them, so it is necessary to consult a doctor when these symptoms appear:

Tired

A general feeling of discomfort or illness (malaise)

Anorexia

Lose weight

fever

pallor

Shortness of breath and fast heartbeat (palpitations).

weakness

Dizziness

bruising

Recurrent, light, or profuse nosebleeds

bleeding gums

Small, flat, red spots appear on the skin, caused by bleeding under the skin.

Frequent infections of the lungs, urinary tract, gums, or around the anus

frequent cold sores

vomiting

headache

Sore throat

night sweats

Bone or joint pain

Enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, groin, or above the collarbones

Abdominal discomfort or a feeling of fullness (bloating)

Visual disturbances and lesions in the eye

swollen testicles

Chloroma:

Clusters of leukemia cells under the skin or in other parts of the body

Cutaneous leukemia - lesions or spots of A  size is usually pink or reddish-brown

Allergic vasculitis - a disorder similar to an allergic skin reaction that usually appears as lesions on the hands and feet

Sweet's syndrome, or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, is a condition characterized by fever and painful lesions that can occur anywhere on the body.

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