Heart disease can affect any of the heart's functions and any part of the heart. The most common heart disease is a coronary syndrome or coronary syndrome in its various forms.

heart disease

Coronary blood vessels are the blood vessels located on the outer side of the heart muscle and their function is to deliver blood to the heart itself.

heart info

There are four valves in the heart, each of which may be damaged or malfunctioning. The basic disorders in the work of the heart valves are classified into two groups:

1. Heart valve stenosis

That is the inability to pump blood and move it between the different parts of the heart, which requires more pressure in pumping blood to reach the normal level that the heart pumps.

2. Dilated heart valve

The blood flow continues even while the heart valve is supposed to completely block blood flow.

In the heart there is a conduction system responsible for transmitting the electrical signals that stimulate the heart contractions, regulate the timing of contractions and regulate the relationship between the contractions of the ventricles and the contractions of the atria.

Sometimes there may be a defect in the work of the electrical transmission system, which can be reflected in: 

rapid heart rate, slow heart rate, irregular heart rate, or the absence of any clear temporal relationship between the timing of ventricular contractions and the timing of atria contractions.

Heart diseases in the heart valves may be congenital, when heart murmurs are expected when listening to the sound of the heart, and they may be acquired as a result of various infectious heart diseases that cause direct or indirect damage to the heart valves.

The process of atherosclerosis also can cause damage to the heart valves. When there is a suspicion of a certain type of heart disease, you should go to the family doctor or to a doctor specializing in internal diseases 

and sometimes according to the different data, it may also be necessary to consult a doctor who specializes in heart disease ( Cardiologist).

How the heart works

Understanding how the heart works make it easier to understand the causes of heart disease. 

The heart is a pump and is a muscular organ the size of a fist, located slightly to the left of the center of the chest.

The heart is divided into two sides: the right and the left. The goal of this separation is to ensure that the oxygen-rich blood does not mix with the oxygen-free blood. 

The oxygen-free blood is blue in color and returns to the heart after it circulates in the body.

The right side of the heart consists of the right atrium and the right ventricle, as it receives blood from the lungs and pumps it to them through the pulmonary arteries.

The oxygen-rich blood crosses from the right side to the left side of the heart, which also consists of the left atrium and the left ventricle, and from there any of the left-side blood is 

pumped to the body, through the aorta, to supply the various tissues of the body with oxygen and different nutrients.

The four valves in the heart are responsible for the proper flow of blood. The valves open only in one direction and only when they are depressed. 

Each valve opens and closes once in every single heartbeat, or approximately once every second at rest.

In the heart, there is also a network of electrical wires responsible for the continuation of the heartbeat, where the electrical impulses start from the top in the right atrium and then travel in a special path to the ventricles carrying orders to withdraw blood.

The transport system is responsible for ensuring that the heart is beating at a consistent and healthy pace so that the blood continues to flow in a circulatory way, the constant switching 

between oxygen-rich and oxygen-free blood is the process that maintains the continuity of life.

Inflammation of the heart muscle may be caused by contagious heart disease caused by viruses, reactions that interfere with the immune system, or alcohol and drug abuse.

When does heart disease occur?

When there is a process of hardening and accumulation of a layer of a mixture of calcium and fat inside the coronary blood vessels, or when constriction occurs in these blood vessels, 

it is possible that a narrowing of its hollow occurs, which hinders the delivery of blood to the heart muscle.

Any contact with the heart muscle or its ability to contract may cause a temporary or permanent decrease in the heart's ability to contract.

When the heart’s ability to contract is damaged, there is a decrease in blood pumping to vital organs in the body, as this process of narrowing blood vessels causes angina pectoris, 

and if permanent damage occurs to the heart muscle, then myocardial infarction is generated.

A person suffering from angina pectoris or myocardial infarction may feel pain or pressure on the chest wall, sometimes accompanied by sweating, a feeling of suffocation, shortness 

of breath, nausea, and a feeling of general weakness, as this situation constitutes an emergency that requires urgent medical intervention.

Heart disease symptoms

Symptoms of heart disease vary according to the disease, and they are as follows:

1. Symptoms of cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease is caused by narrowing, blockage, or hardening of the blood vessels that cause the heart, brain, or other organs in the body to not receive enough blood.

Symptoms of cardiovascular disease include:

pain in the chest.

shortness of breath.

Numbness, weakness, or cold feeling in the legs and arms.

2. Symptoms of heart disease caused by arrhythmias

An arrhythmia is an irregular heartbeat that may involve the heart beating at a higher-than-normal rate, at a lower-than-normal rate, or irregularly.

Symptoms of heart disease associated with arrhythmias include:

Chest flutter.

Rapid heartbeat.

slow heartbeat

pain in the chest.

Shortness of breath.


Fainting or a condition close to it.

3. Symptoms of heart disease caused by a heart defect

A severe congenital heart defect can usually be detected within hours, days, weeks, or months after birth, and symptoms include:

Heart disease is the following:

Light gray or blue leather.

Swelling in the abdomen, legs, or around the eyes.

Shortness of breath during eating, which causes an insufficient increase in weight.

Less severe birth defects are often diagnosed only late in childhood or even adulthood. Symptoms of congenital heart defects that are not immediately life-threatening include:

Ease of shortness of breath as a result of physical activity or sports.

Ease of feeling tired as a result of physical activity or sports.

Fluid buildup in the heart or lungs.

Swelling in the hands, ankles, or palms of the feet.

4. Symptoms of heart disease caused by cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy means that the heart muscle becomes thicker and stiffer, and sometimes in the early stages of cardiomyopathy, there are no symptoms at all.

As the disease worsens and worsens, symptoms may include the following:

Shortness of breath when making any effort or even when resting.

Swelling of the legs, ankles, and feet.

Abdominal distension due to fluid accumulation.



dizziness, fainting;

5. Symptoms of heart disease caused by inflammation

There are three types of inflammation in the heart:

Pericarditis is an inflammation of the membrane that covers the heart.

Myocarditis affects the middle layer of the heart muscle.

Endocarditis affects the inner membrane that separates the heart's chambers and valves.

Symptoms of heart disease caused by inflammation in the heart vary, depending on the type of infection, and include:


shortness of breath.

weakness or fatigue

Swelling in the legs or abdomen.

Changes in the rate of the heartbeat.

Dry or persistent cough.

Rash or unusual spots.

6. Symptoms of heart disease caused by a problem in the heart valves

There are four valves in the heart:

The aortic valve.

Mitral valve.

Pulmonary valve.

Tricuspid valve.

All heart valves open and close to direct blood flow through the heart. Heart valves may be damaged due to several factors that lead to narrowing, leakage of any abnormal flow, insufficiency, or incomplete closure.

Symptoms of heart disease caused by damage to the heart valves vary depending on which heart valve is damaged and include:


shortness of breath.

Heart arrhythmia or hear heart murmurs.

Swelling in the palms of the feet or in the ankles.

pain in the chest.


Heart disease causes and risk factors

1. Heart disease risk factors

Risk factors that lead to heart disease include:



high blood pressure

Excess cholesterol in the blood.


Excessive obesity.

Lack of physical activity.

constant tension.

Poor hygiene.

2. Causes of cardiovascular disease

The term cardiovascular disease refers to several types of cardiovascular disease, and this name is often called damage to the heart or blood vessels due to atherosclerosis or the accumulation of layers of fat inside the arteries.

Over time, the pressure on the arteries that is too high can make their walls stiffer, less flexible, and thicker, which can sometimes impede blood flow to the body's various organs and tissues.

This process is called arterial calcification or atherosclerosis and is the most common type of this disorder, and it is the most common risk factor and cause of cardiovascular disease.

The factors causing this disorder are an unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity, obesity, and smoking.

3. Causes of arrhythmia

Common causes of arrhythmias, or diseases that may lead to arrhythmias, include:

Congenital heart defects.

Coronary artery disease.


diabetes mellitus;


Excessive consumption of alcohol and caffeine.

Drug Addiction.


Certain over-the-counter medications, certain prescription medications, some nutritional supplements, and some medicinal herbs.

Heart valve disease.

4. Causes of heart defects and malformations

Heart defects and malformations usually arise and develop while the fetus is in the womb. About a month after the start of pregnancy, the fetal heart begins to grow, and at this point, heart malformations can begin to develop and form.

Researchers don't know for sure what causes birth defects, but they believe that certain diseases, certain medications, and genetics play a role.

5. Causes of heart disease and cardiomyopathy

The exact cause of cardiomyopathy, that is, enlargement of the heart muscle, is not known, as there are three types of cardiomyopathy:

Weak or too wide heart muscle.

Very thick heart muscle.

The stiff heart muscle is rigid and limited.

6. Causes of heart infections

Infections in the heart, such as Pericarditis, Myocarditis, or Endocarditis, occur when a stimulating factor such as a virus, bacteria, or chemical reaches the heart muscle.

The most common causes of heart infections include:




Medicines that may cause an allergic or toxic reaction.

Other diseases.

7. Causes of valvular heart disease

Many factors increase the risk of heart disease in the valves, as heart valve diseases in the heart can be congenital or caused by some diseases, such as:

Rheumatic fever.


Connective tissue diseases.

Some medicines and radiation treatments for cancer.

Heart disease complications

One of the most common complications of heart disease symptoms is congestive heart failure. Other complications that accompany heart disease include:

heart attack;

brain attack.

An aneurysm is a localized dilation of the walls of blood vessels.

Vital arterial disease fold.

sudden cardiac arrest

Heart disease diagnosis

The tests needed to diagnose heart disease depend on the type of disease the doctor suspects of having.

In all cases, the doctor will likely perform a physical exam and ask questions about the patient's and family's medical history before deciding to have any further testing.

Tests to diagnose heart disease include:

blood tests

Perform an electrocardiogram.

Monitoring and monitoring of the heart with a Holter device.


Cardiac catheterization.

Heart biopsy.

Computed tomography.

Magnetic resonance imaging.

If the results of the echocardiogram are unclear, the doctor may recommend a transesophageal ultrasound. 

For this test, the patient swallows a flexible tube containing a small transducer about the size of an index finger that runs down the throat. The transducer transmits images of the heart to a computer screen.

Heart disease treatment

Treatment options vary depending on the disease, and include the following:

1. Cardiovascular disease treatment

The goal of treatment for cardiovascular disease is often to open narrowed or blocked arteries that are causing symptoms. 

The type of treatment depends on the severity of the stenosis and can include lifestyle and habits changes, certain medications, and certain medical procedures or surgeries.

2. Treatment of arrhythmias

Treatment of arrhythmias can include medications, medical procedures such as an artificial pacemaker, implantation of a defibrillator, surgery, and vagus nerve stimulation.

3. Treatment of cardiac malformations

Some heart defects or abnormalities are small and simple and do not require treatment, but some other defects and abnormalities require constant monitoring, drug treatment, and sometimes even surgical treatment.

The type of treatment for heart disease depends on the type and severity of the defect and may include medications, procedures using catheters, open-heart surgery, and heart transplantation.

4. Cardiomyopathy treatment

Treatment of heart disease and cardiomyopathy depends on the type and severity. Treatment of heart disease includes:

Medication treatment.

medical equipment.

heart transplant

5. Treatment of infections

The first treatment for infections of the heart, such as pericarditis, myocarditis, or endocarditis, is often medication, antibiotics, and pacemakers.

Treatments for valve-related heart disease vary according to the type of valve affected and severity but generally include medications, balloon surgery, and repair and restoration or valve replacement.

6. Surgical treatment

Sometimes it may be necessary to take the patient to the operating room for coronary artery bypass grafting. 

This surgery can be performed quickly as emergency surgery, or as a pre-planned surgery based on the results of various examinations that require surgical intervention.

Heart disease prevention

Certain types of heart disease, such as heart defects, cannot be prevented, but lifestyle changes that help improve some patients with heart disease may also help prevent many types of heart disease.

These changes include:

Maintain normal levels of blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes.

Quit Smoking.

Make sure to do physical activity.

Take care of a healthy diet.

Maintain a healthy weight.

Reduce and control stress.

Alternative therapies

There are several methods in alternative medicine that may be useful in lowering cholesterol and in preventing certain types of heart disease, and they include:

 Plantago ovata.


Oats and oat bran.

Omega 3 fatty acids.

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