Leukemia - symptoms, and causes


Leukemia is cancer of the tissues that make up the blood in the body, including the bone marrow and lymph system.

Leukemia - symptoms, and causes

There are many types of leukemia. Some forms of leukemia are more common in children. Other forms of leukemia often affect adults.

Leukemia usually includes white blood cells. White blood cells are your body's first line of defense against infection, and they grow and divide in an orderly fashion, according to your body's needs. 

But in patients with leukemia, the bone marrow produces excessive amounts of abnormal white blood cells, which do not function properly.

Leukemia treatment can be complicated, depending on the type of leukemia and other factors. 

But some strategies and resources can be harnessed to help with treatment success.


Symptoms of leukemia vary according to its type. Typical signs and symptoms of leukemia include:

  • fever or chills
  • Constant fatigue and weakness
  • Frequent or serious infections
  • Lose weight without trying
  • Enlarged lymph nodes and an enlarged liver or spleen
  • Easy bleeding or bruising
  • frequent nosebleeds
  • Small red spots on your skin (petechiae)
  • Excessive sweating, especially at night
  • Bone pain or tenderness

When do you visit the doctor?

Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any persistent signs or symptoms that worry you.

Symptoms of leukemia are often vague and non-specific. You may ignore early signs of leukemia because they may resemble those of influenza and other common illnesses.

Leukemia is often discovered during blood tests for some other conditions.

the reasons

How does leukemia form?

In general, leukemia is thought to occur when certain blood cells develop changes (mutations) in their DNA. 

A cell's DNA contains instructions that direct it to carry out its specific function. Usually, DNA directs a cell to do two things: grow at a certain rate and die at a specific time. In the case of leukemia, mutations direct blood cells to continue growing and dividing.

When this happens, the body loses control over the process of producing blood cells. Over time, these abnormal cells can crowd out healthy blood cells in the bone marrow; This leads 

to a decrease in the number of white blood cells, red blood cells, and healthy platelets, and signs and symptoms of leukemia appear.

How is leukemia classified?

Doctors classify leukemia by how quickly the condition progresses and the type of cells present.

The first type of classification depends on how quickly leukemia progresses, as follows:

acute leukemia; In acute leukemia, the abnormal blood cells are immature blood cells (blasts) that fail to perform their normal functions and multiply rapidly, so the disease progresses rapidly. Acute leukemia requires aggressive and timely treatment.

Chronic leukemia. There are many types of chronic leukemia. Some produce too many cells, while others cause too few cells. 

Chronic leukemia involves more mature blood cells. These cells multiply or accumulate more slowly and can function normally for some time. 

However, some forms of chronic leukemia initially do not cause any early symptoms, and they can go unnoticed or undiagnosed for several years.

The second type of classification depends on the type of white blood cells affected:

Lymphocytic leukemia. This type of leukemia affects the lymphocytes (lymphocytes) that make up lymphoid tissue, which in turn make up the immune system.

Myelogenous leukemia. This type of leukemia affects the myeloid cells, which in turn help form red and white blood cells and platelet-producing cells.

Types of leukemia

The main types of leukemia:

Acute lymphocytic leukemia. 

It is the most common type of leukemia in young children. 

It can also affect adults.

Acute myelogenous leukemia. It is one of the common types of leukemia. It affects children and adults, but it affects adults more often.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia. 

With chronic lymphocytic leukemia 

— the most common type of chronic leukemia in adults 

— you may feel fine for years without needing treatment.

Chronic myelogenous leukemia. 

This type of leukemia mainly affects adults. 

A patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia may have few or no symptoms for months or years before entering the accelerated growth phase of the leukemia cells.

other kinds. Other rare types of leukemia include hairy cell leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and myeloproliferative disorders.

risk factors

Factors that may increase your risk of developing some types of leukemia include:

Treating previous cancer. People who've had certain types of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for other types of cancer may have an increased risk of developing some types of leukemia.

genetic disorders. Genetic defects can play a role in developing leukemia. Some genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, are associated with an increased risk of developing.

Expodevelopingcertain chemicals. 

Exposure to certain chemicals, such as benzene 

— which is found in gasoline and used in the chemical industry 

— is associated with a higher risk of developing some types of leukemia.


Cigarette smoking increases the risk of acute myelogenous leukemia.

Having a history of leukemia in the family. If members of your family have been diagnosed with leukemia, your risk of developing the disease may increase.

But we find that the majority of people who know People who are not known to have risk factors do not develop leukemia. 

Also, many people with leukemia do not have any of these risk factors.

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